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Termites were once classified in a separate order from cockroaches, but recent phylogenetic studies indicate that they evolved from close ancestors of cockroaches during the Jurassic or Triassic. It is possible, however, that the first termites emerged during the Permian or even the Carboniferous. Approximately 3,106 species are currently described, with a few hundred more left to be described. Although these insects are often called white ants, they are not ants.

Termites mostly feed on dead plant material and cellulose, generally in the form of wood, leaf litter, soil, or animal dung.their recycling of wood and plant matter is of considerable ecological importance.

On the other hand, Most of your wood investments in this case will be highly compromised and threaten during infestation.






Particularly Aedes, which is a genus of mosquitoes, highly common infestation outbreak in Singapore. Aedes mosquitoes are visually distinctive because they have noticeable black and white markings on their body and legs. Unlike most other mosquitoes, they are active and bite only during the daytime. The peak biting periods are early in the morning and in the evening before dusk.

Aedes transmit viruses that can cause dengue fever, yellow fever, West Nile fever, chikungunya, eastern equine encephalitis, and Zika virus.

House Flies


They are gray, with four dark stripes down the dorsum of the thorax. House flies have sponging mouthparts and can ingest only liquids. However, they can eat solid food (e.g., sugar, flour, pollen) by first liquefying it with their saliva.Even though House flies does not bite; however, they have been demonstrated to mechanically transmit the causative agents of diarrhea, cholera, yaws, dysentery, and eye infections. Flies are also implicated as mechanical vectors of Shigella and Salmonella, the latter being a pathogen responsible for food poisoning.



The cockroach in Singapore is known to be one of the most resilient creatures, spawning the  Most cockroaches prefer dark and moist environments, making them difficult to spot in the day. However, if a cockroach is spotted in the day, it may be a sign of a serious cockroach control problem.

Cockroaches carry disease-causing bacteria, spreading salmonella, dysentery, gastroenteritis and diarrhoea among others. The organisms causing these diseases are carried on the legs and bodies of Cockroaches, and are deposited on food and utensils as Cockroaches feed and move about. Cockroaches can also be responsible for asthmatic reactions.  Children, the elderly and people prone to bronchial ailments can react to the discarded fragments of “skin” when Cockroaches moult.



Three common rodent species are found in Singapore: Norway Rat/Sewer Rat (Rattus norvegicus), Roof Rat (Rattus rattus diardii) and House mouse (Mus musculus).

The three species have different characteristics and therefore the approaches to control them.

Of these, the Norway rat is the most commonly-found species found at food centres, wet markets and bin centres.

The roof rat prefers the upper parts of dwellings whereas the Norway rat prefers the lower parts or burrows in the ground outside the building.

Birthrate is about 4-8 litters per year, with 5-12 youngs per litter. Sexual maturity is attained in 2-3 months.

Their avarage lifespan is about 1 year,a pair of rodents are capable of reproducing about 2,000 offspring in a year!

They are known to transmit many human diseases such as plague, leptospirosis, murine typhus, rat-bite fever, salmonellosis, etc. They also consume and contaminate stored food,damage expensive furniture, computers, equipment, machinery parts... etc and cause fire through biting the insulation of electric wire. Unhealthy living conditions.



Bed Bug


Bed bugs are small insects that feed on the blood of mammals and birds. Adult bed bugs are oval, wingless and rusty red coloured, and have flat bodies, antennae and small eyes. They are visible to the naked eye, but often hide in cracks and crevices. When they feed, their bodies swell and become a brighter red. In homes, they feed primarily on the blood of humans, usually at night when people are sleeping.

Typically, the bite is painless and rarely awakens a sleeping person. However, it can produce large, itchy welts on the skin.Although bed bugs may be a nuisance to people, they are not known to spread disease.Welts from bed bug bites do not have a red spot in the centre – those welts are more characteristic of flea bites. Although bed bugs may be a nuisance to people, they are not known to spread disease.However, they are known to cause allergic reactions from their saliva in sensitive people.




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